Archive for July, 2010

Poems Written in the Last Ten Days

July 31, 2010

Poems, and sayings written in the last 10 days or so:

POEMS

One spoon
one bowl
and still both
hands are full

I whisper my secret
to my statue
of Galatea

Weak tea,
thin soup,
and I am running
out of water.

Like a candle
never lit.

(ART HISTORY)
Sad western painting,
it took a while
before any portrait
was allowed to smile

In the sequel
there’s turnabout,
and Frankenstein
reassembles the Dr.

Living on a
bridge to nowhere

He filled his house with water pitchers
in hutches in every wall.
Lighting struck and started a fire
that engulfed every floor.
But as the shelves began to collapse
the pitchers would tip their spouts.
And the water pouring forth
would put the fires out.

Round and round
go Saturn’s rings.
It’s a perpetual
motion machine.

Kafka came to me,
a ghost in a dream.
I told him how much
the world loved his work.
“Which ones do they like?”
“All of them” I replied.
He thought for a moment.
“GIve them this message,
“When THEY become ghosts,
I’ll give them my thanks.”

SAYINGS

There are walls, even in space.

Rock doesn’t rock any more.

If time is an arrow, who shot it?

Don’t look at the snowflake on the top of the mountain. Look at the mountain!

Who decorated this place, the bomb squad?

Imagine a graph showing a bell curve of openness to new ideas.
Dallas would be 3 miles to the left of that chart.

Like looking for grey in grey!

Tom Hendricks
(editor of the 17 year old zine Musea)

Musea Art Contest 7/25/10

July 27, 2010

The answer to, and winner (if any) for, our last contest question of:

Speaking of time travel, we are back in October 1881. Within 48 hours two historical events happen. On one side of the world one of the world’s greatest artists is born. On the other side of the world the world’s greatest shoot out occurs. Name the dates and events. And have a safe trip back to the present day!

IS
Pablo Picasso, born October 25, 1881.
Shootout at the OK Corral October 26,1881. Earp Brothers vs. The Clanton-McLaury Gang.
Think about the western films and TV shows you’ve seen. How many mention
Impressionist paintings and modern art?  We don’t often make the connection. But there was a world going on outside the wild west!

We had a winner. Congratulations to Rick from Lithia Springs, GA.
Seems the rest of you time travelers got stuck down the road in No-Answer, Arizona!

I don’t dumb DOWN, so wise UP.
Now on to a new Q.: Win a copy of my NEW cd CALLED ‘30′! – (first anti-band CD) or my NEWER cd CALLED ‘NEXT”(‘06) or my NEWEST cd CALLED ‘THIRDS” (May ‘07) or my MORE NEWEST cd Called “FOUR-TH” ‘08 or my Just RELEASED MOST NEWEST cd CALLED ‘5-TH’(Nov.’09)( one of the 5 CD set). Hunkasaurus.com (has them all plus videos and more) if you are the first to E-MAIL ME at THIS ADDRESS: tom-hendricks @ att.net(remove blanks of course) with the correct answer to this art question*

Speaking of the wild west, here’s a fashion question. How much water will a 10-gallon hat hold? (Oh and don’t even THINK of answering with the obvious!)

Good Luck!
Readers, IF you like these puzzles and would like to resend them to friends, post them on any newsgroup, or any website, please do so. The more the merrier! For tons of past quizzes go to, the musea website at musea.us or the Musea blog at musea.wordpress.comAnd don’t forget the music/videos at hunkasaurus.comhttp://www.Myspace.com/Musead(New Friends welcome) http://www.youtube.com/TomHendricksMusea (all my videos)
Tom Hendricks (editor of the 17 year old zine Musea)

Hendricks Health Theory

July 27, 2010

READERS PLEASE NOTE:  This hypothesis is going through many changes. Some of these ideas have been altered or amended. The later posts added at the end are more up to date, and should be more accurate. I always welcome your comments, questions, etc. Tom Hendricks , January 2011.

The Hypothesis summary:  The biological basis of life is also the major factor of all human behavior. it’s based on two very basic and universal things; food in, and waste out. Food in and waste out, evolved to all kinds of nurturing in, and all kinds of waste out. To discover why we behave as we do, look at human behavior in terms of moving toward food/nurturing, and moving away from waste.  – Jan 2014

For another summary of the Origin of Life – a different perspective (3.14), see
https://musea.wordpress.com/2014/03/10/the-origin-of-life-a-different-perspective/

The INTRO TO ISSUE:

Dear Reader, Some of you know I have a great interest in biology. This post is about some recent ideas that I have had that I think may be new and important. Here goes.

Let’s start with metabolism. That’s all the chemical processes in all living things.

Metabolism is divided into two categories. They are  CATABOLISM,  and ANABOLISM. CATABOLISM breaks down molecules to supply energy, etc. It’s a destructive metabolism. ANABOLISM uses energy to build complex molecules out of simpler ones – constructive metabolism. They are opposite, but work together in all living things.

This issues suggests these three major points:

1. Just about every aspect of life has evolved from catabolic or anabolic biochemistry (Catabolic breaks down molecules, and anabolic synthesizes bigger molecules from them). And everything means EVERYTHING. Catabolism and anabolism aren’t the gorilla in the room. They are the gorilla in the gorilla!

2. The two pathways are relatively separate after four billion years of evolution for many reasons . Regulating each separately gives many evolutionary advantages; more flexibility, the ability to evolve quickly, more control etc. Also mixing the two may be dangerous to the cell, or cells. See part one.

3. Because they are separate but connected,  I suggest there is a ‘symbiotic arms race’ between the two. Whenever a positive change happens on one side, it may spur the other to match it. Thus there is a sort of evolutionary motor directing evolution towards better catabolism, or anabolism.

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Part One: SPECIFIC FIRST EXAMPLES

This section suggests that a major aspect of all life is the emphasis on either catabolic or anabolic biochemistry. It gives examples that support these two specific ideas:

1. Anabolic and Catabolic  processes have not blended over 4 billion years, but stayed separate. For example, catabolic processes such as strong digestive acids would cause real harm if they were blended with anabolic processes.

2. Catabolic processes seem to have evolved to include not only breaking down molecules, but  DIGESTION, the IMMUNE SYSTEM, and EXCRETING WASTE OUT. Many times these three pathways are related in some way.

Catabolic Specifics:

1. The GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. This tract in animals goes from the mouth to the anus and is for  digestion. Note how separate it is from the rest of the body. Excluding the absorption aspect, it is almost completely separate from the rest of the body. Note all the bodies defenses here that protect from antigens. They not only include stomach acids, but the process of spitting out bad food, and excreting out wastes.  NOTE: The alimentary tract is separate from anabolic processes (excluding  the mostly isolated aspects of absorption).  It involves digestion, protection, and waste out

2. LYSOSOMES.  These organelles in animal cells not only digest food, but also excess or worn out organelles, food particles, engulfed viruses / bacteria, and – at the end of the cell’s life – they can destroy the entire cell. There is real danger from these lysosomes, if their membranes break (Tay-Sachs disease, for example). NOTE: These organelles have to be separate from anabolic processes. They involve digestion, protection, and / or waste out.

3. VACUOLES. These are vesicles in the center of fungi, plants; and, some protists, animal, and bacterial, cells. Vacuoles are enclosed in a membrane and separate. Vacuoles isolate what’s harmful, store waste, export waste, and in plants carry the poisonous compounds used for protection. NOTE: These organelles have to be separate from anabolic processes. They involve digestion, protection, and waste out.

4. PHAGOCYTOSIS . The cellular process in protists that engulfs particles in phagocytes  and digests them. Note by surrounding the foreign particles it keeps them separate from the rest of the cell. Phagocytosis helps remove waste and ingest pathogens as part of the immune system. NOTE This cellular process is very separate from the rest of the cell. It involves digestion, protection, and waste out.

5. BACTERIA  DIGESTION . Some bacteria and fungi digest by excreting enzymes that breakdown the food outside the cell. Also bacteria excrete toxins that help in protection. NOTE. The digestive system is outside of the cell and separate from it. It involves digestion, protection, and keeping waste out.

6. IMMUNE SYSTEM. The lymphatic system is separate from the circulatory system.  It protects the body, and removes waste. White blood cells are separate from red blood cells.  NOTE The lymphatic system is separate from the rest of the body. It involves protection and waste out.

7. CELLULAR RESPIRATION.  Mitochondria are organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells. They are the cell’s powerhouse. They act like a digestive system, take in nutrients, and break them down for energy for the cell. NOTE Mitochondria are separate from the rest of the cell. They even have their own DNA. They involve digestion.

8. PHOTOSYNTHESIS.  Catabolic light reaction is separate from the anabolic dark reaction. NOTE the two parts of photosynthesis are separate and different. The light reaction is dependent on sunlight.

9. CELL DIVISION IN EUKARYOTES. The interphase build up of two identical parts, is followed by a separate mitotic phase, that involves both mitosis , and cytokinesis which tears apart the inside and outside of the cell. The mitotic phase is separate from the interphase. It involves tearing apart, instead of building up.

SUM UP: This shows how anabolic and catabolic processes have evolved along separate pathways over four billion years; and that there is little blending of pathways between the two.  And it shows that catabolic processes often overlap between breaking down molecules, digestion, the immune system, and excreting out waste.

How difficult is it to imagine that, in response to environmental pressures, an organism  could evolve catabolic processes over anabolic processes, or vice versa as needed to better fit the environment. If natural selection chose more catabolic aspects (digestion, protection, waste out) as the best response to the environment, then that would be stressed in the species. If natural selection chose more anabolic aspects as the best response to the environment, that would be stressed in the species.

Clearly we should expect to find major divisions of catabolic and anabolic processes in life. We should be able to find many novel ways where species have amplified the best aspects of catabolic processes, in some species; while others amplified the best aspects of anabolic processes. It may be the major difference between species.

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Part Two : MAJOR DIVISIONS

Start with the basic concept of catabolic and anabolic biochemistry. I suggest that these two chemical pathways evolved to many novel forms and developments. And that in all these major divisions, one half is more catabolic in its evolved forms, while the other half is more anabolic in its evolved forms. Here is my list so far. Remember this list is a work in progress. Expect changes, additions, and possible deletions as we learn more.

SOME OF THE POSSIBLE WAYS CATABOLIC / ANABOLIC HAVE EVOLVED:

Species level / Sex:

CATABOLIC : Male / ANABOLIC: Female

All LIfe Level / ATP

CATABOLIC: Generates ATP / ANABOLIC: Consumes ATP

Glucose

CATABOLIC – Breaks Down Glucose to make ATP / ANABOLIC –  Synthesizes Glucose

Hormones – two main types

CATABOLIC Hormones – hormones that manage catabolic reactions

ANABOLIC Hormones – hormones that manage anabolic reactions

All Life Level / Entropy

CATABOLIC: Increase of cellular entropy. / ANABOLIC: Decrease of cellular entropy.

All Life Level / Survival Strategies

CATABOLIC :  Fight/Flight, (competition, conflict, survival of the fittest.)

ANABOLIC:  Symbiosis, (Tend and Befriend, rest and digest)

Energy Source

CATABOLIC – heterotrophs (animals etc.) / ANABOLIC – autotrophs (plants etc.)

Photosynthesis

CATABOLIC – light reaction / ANABOLIC – dark reaction.

Relation to other Organisms

CATABOLIC – antibiosis  / ANABOLIC – symbiosis

General

CATABOLIC – anything that protects and defends / ANABOLIC – anything that nurtures

Daily Metabolism Cycle

CATABOLIC : mostly in wake period of daily metabolism cycle.

ANABOLIC: mostly in sleep period of daily metabolism cycle.

Cell Division/ Replication

CATABOLIC: Cell division – cells divide into single separate organisms

ANABOLIC:   Cell division – cells connect up into a multi cell organism.

Growth and Weight Problems

Growth / Overweight – ANABOLIC rate high and / or CATABOLIC rate low.

Loss / Underweight – ANABOLIC rate low and / or CATABOLIC rate high.

Two Part Human Mind

CATABOLIC Mind – mostly conscious mind, wake mind.

ANABOLIC Mind – mostly subconscious mind, sleep mind.

Autonomic Nervous system

CATABOLIC – Sympathetic Nervous System, (fight and flight)

ANABOLIC – Parasympathetic Nervous System, ( rest and digest)

Emotional Evolution

CATABOLIC –  Anger, Fear  / ANABOLIC – Neediness,  Hunger

Division of Processes in the Body

CATABOLIC – Attacks non-self  / ANABOLIC – Supports self

Three Types of Psychological Behavior  of Karen Horney  from “Inner Conflicts”.

CATABOLIC –  Moves against others, Moves away from others  or moves against self.

ANABOLIC – Moves towards others.  (Fourth type Moves toward self).

Digestion and Assimilation

CATABOLIC – Digestion  Gastrointestinal Tract

ANABOLIC – Absorption and Assimilation.

Circulatory System

CATABOLIC –  Lymphatic System , White Blood Cell

ANABOLIC – Circulatory System,  Red Blood Cell

All Life Level – Food In, Waste out

CATABOLIC – Waste out – Blocked out or excreted out

ANABOLIC: – Food in  – Taken in or held in.

Cell Level

CATABOLIC – Lysosomes, Vacuoles, Phagocytes. / ANABOLIC – Rest of the cell.

Cell Cycle in Eukaryotes

CATABOLIC – Mitotic phase (mitosis and cytokinesis)

ANABOLIC – interphase

Cell

CATABOLIC – Cell death

ANABOLIC – Cell replication

Origin Of LIfe, Clue

CATABOLIC/ ANABOLIC division is an adaptation to the Day / Night or LIght / Dark Cycle. If life is a two part catabolic / anabolic biochemical system, then clearly it’s a cyclical system that has evolved as adaptation to something in the environment that is also a two part cycle. The only environmental two part cycle with enough force to fit and enough constancy to last over a long period of time, would be the Day/Sun/Heat then Night/No-Sun/Cool daily cycle. Thus life has to be a biochemical system that has evolved to fit, mimic, mirror, exist within, and adapt to, the daily sun cycle. That suggests that we must investigate the biochemistry of life in reference to both a day/sun/heat chemistry and a night/ no-sun/cooler chemistry. And that the origin of life was an event such that it was daily affected by the sun cycle. It is likely that anabolic build up was the first of the two to develop. Then catabolic breakdown evolved later. Note there is most likely also a wet/dry cycle in the origin of life, too.

Origin of Life Clue – Chemical processes in both Light and Dark phase

CATABOLIC – Night, No sunlight – UV, wet,  hydrolysis of ATP, type chemistry.

ANABOLIC – Day, sunlight-UV, dry  condensation synthesis, type processes.

CATABOLIC –  Hydrolysis

ANABOLIC – Condensation Reactions.

TYPE OF SELECTION PRESSURE  NOW. All the major metabolic pathways seen in prokaryotes probably evolved in first billion years. The catabolic processes seem to be highly conserved such that stabilizing selection predominates.

CATABOLIC – Stabilizing Selection

ANABOLIC –  Directional and Diversifying selection.

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Here is a list of some other possible evolved aspects of the catabolic anabolic division that may be worth considering. Key: C – Catabolic , A – Anabolic.

BREATHING – C. Breathing out, A. Breathing in. Child – C. Birth, A. – Prenatal development. TWO HEMISPHERES OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX – C. Right Hemisphere, A. Left Hemisphere.  FOUR OPTIONS OF FOOD IN / WASTE OUT – C. 2, 4  A. 1,3. THINKING PROCESS – C. Break a problem down to its parts. A. Build up parts to a new idea.

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Part Three: WHAT THIS MAY MEAN

IF all life evolved in one of two ways – either better catabolism or better anabolism, then that may begin to explain these things:

How life has evolved  in only two specific separate pathways, anabolic and catabolic.

Why we have two sexes

Why males are the more aggressive sex. Why protective male behavior.

Why violent behavior is mostly a male behavior.

Why females are the  more nurturing sex. Why nurturing female behavior.

Why males react to stress with fight or flight

Why females react to stress with tend and defend

That there is a daily metabolism cycle.

That the daily metabolism cycle has two parts – wake and sleep.

That wake is more concerned with catabolic processes

That sleep is more concerned with anabolic processes

That there may be two relatively separate  minds in humans, not one. A catabolic mind, and an anabolic mind.

That the wake mind may be the catabolic mind (conscious mind?)

That the sleep mind may be the anabolic mind. (unconscious mind?)

That in sleep the NREM or deep sleep (80%) is for replenishing the body (anabolic).

That in sleep the REM or dream sleep (20%) is for preparing waste out (catabolic).

That growth  has an anabolic rate that is high, and a catabolic rate that is low.

That loss  (opposite of growth) has an anabolic rate that is low, and a catabolic rate that is high.

That overweight is a catabolic rate that is too low, and/or an anabolic rate too high.

That underweight is a catabolic rate that is too high, and/or an anabolic rate too low.

That the only true way  to adjust weight (loosing or gaining) is to adjust the catabolic / anabolic rates.

Why women are more prone to weight problems then men.

Why loosing or gaining weight is so difficult to do.

That looking at catabolic rates versus anabolic rates can now be a diagnostic tool for Doctors.

That too high a catabolic rate, and too low an anabolic rate has certain specific health and psychological problems.

That these problems can be resolved by adjusting the catabolic / anabolic rates.

That too low a catabolic rate, and too high an anabolic rate has certain specific health and psychological problems.

That these problems can be resolved by adjusting the catabolic / anabolic rates.

That the Sympathetic Nervous system (fight and flight) evolved out of Catabolic processes.

That the Parasympathetic Nervous System (rest and digest) evolved out of the Anabolic processes.

That there are two basic types of hormones: Catabolic, and Anabolic hormones.

That Anger  and Fear are the main two catabolic emotions. (Fight or flight).

That Hunger and Neediness are the main anabolic emotions. (Tend or befriend).

That the three major inner conflicts outlined by Karen Horney in “Inner Conflicts” are reflections of anabolic or catabolic behavior with anabolic being “Move towards others” behavior, and catabolic being “Move against others’ behavior, AND “Move away from others’ behavior.

That her groundbreaking book missed the fourth. “Move towards self” (anabolic).

That food in waste out is a reflection of  anabolism (food in) and catabolism (waste out)

That the Four Options are half anabolism (take in what nurtures, hold in what nurtures ) and half catabolism (block out what does not nurture, excrete out what does not nurture.)

That the origin of the two chemistries of catabolism and anabolism must be an adaptation to some dual cycle in the environment.

That the only such cycle in the environment is the light and dark, day and night cycle.

That the origin of catabolism and anabolism must be an adaptation to the light dark sun cycle.

That a possible scenario for the origin is  a day night, light dark, cycle such that:

anabolic is Day, sunlight-UV, dry  condensation synthesis type processes. And

catabolic is  Night, No sunlight – UV, hydrolysis of ATP type chemistry.

That there may be some direction in natural selection.

That natural selection seems to always goes in one of two ways; either better catabolism or better anabolism.

That there may be a purpose to life – better anabolism and or better catabolism.

That anabolism and catabolism are kept relatively separate for  the four billion years That life has existed, in order that each division can better regulate that side, and have more ability to evolve, and change, and adapt to the environment.

That anabolism and catabolism are under a type of ‘symbiotic arms race’ where the separate sides help spur each other to further development and improvement through natural selection.

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Part Four: LETTER ON A NEW SCIENCE PAPER ON THE ‘ZINC WORLD’.

I was  very pleased to receive this letter, and to be a tiny part of this science paper:

Dear Tom, several years ago you have sent me a letter with suggestion to pursue further the topic of the light-driven origin of life.  Although it took some time to find physically plausible solutions for several problems related to the light-driven abiogenesis, it has found to be possible to produce a realistic scenario and even to prove it.  The results are described in the two papers that are freely accessible  from the home page of Biology Direct (www.biology-direct.com).

Thank you once more for your encouragement (and check the Acknowledgements

section of the first paper!) With best regards Armen

Armen Y. Mulkidjanian, Ph.D. University of  Osnabrueck, School of Physics and School of Biology/Chemistry Barbarastrasse 7 D-49076, Osnabrueck, Germany

ADD ONS SINCE ISSUE PUBLISHED: Notes and updates on the hypothesis.

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Support Doc 1 Separate

This supports these ideas

1. Catabolic and anabolic pathways are separate.

2. Catabolic and anabolic pathways are never at equilibrium.  Therefore they can evolve separately.

3. Change on either catabolic or anabolic pathways  may put selection pressure on the other pathway to better match and work together.

1 Catabolic and anabolic pathways are separate.

“”Catabolic and anabolic pathways differ. If a metabolite is converted to another metabolite by an exergonic process, free energy must be supplied to convert the second metabolite back to the first. This energetically “uphill” process requires a different pathway for at least some of the reaction steps.

The existence of independent interconversion routes … is an important property of metabolic pathways because it allows independent control of the two processes. If metabolite 2 is required by the cell, it is necessary to ‘turn off’ the pathway from 2 to 1 while ‘turning on’ the pathway from 1 to 2. Such independent control would be impossible without different pathways.”

2. Catabolic and anabolic pathways are never at equilibrium. Therefore they can evolve separately.

“Living organisms, which take up nutrients, release waste products, and generate work and heat, are open systems and therefore can never be at equilibrium. They continuously ingest high-enthalpy, low-entropy nutrients, which they convert to low – enthalpy, high – entropy waste products. The free energy released in this process powers the cellular activities that produce the high degree of organization characteristic of life.”

“Living organisms are thermodynamically open systems that tend to maintain a steady state rather than reaching equilibrium. …The flux of intermediates through a metabolic pathway in a steady state is more or less constant; that is, the rates of synthesis and breakdown of each pathway intermediate maintain it  at a constant concentration. a steady state far from equilibrium is thermodynamically efficient, because only a non equilibrium process can perform useful work. ”

Whereas a system reaching equilibrium would work simultaneously, an open system allows for the catabolic and anabolic pathways to work independently of each other. One turns off while turning on the  other and / or they work separate pathways at the same or different times.  Because they work separately they can change separately or evolve separately  through natural selection on either side . There can be variation in either pathway.

Example:  “If glycogen synthesis and breakdown proceed simultaneously , all that is achieved is the wasteful hydrolysis of UTP. Glycogen metabolism must therefore be controlled according to cellular needs.”

3. Change on either catabolic or anabolic pathways may put selection pressure on the other pathway to better match, and work together.

New or improved enzymes for example may quickly alter a catabolic pathway; and may well put selection pressure on the anabolic pathway to alter , match, or better regulate the other. Or vice versa.

Quote from Fundamentals of Biochemistry Voet, Voet, Pratt.

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Support Doc 2  Grand Argument

Catabolic reactions are those in which nutrients and cell parts are broken down to salvage their components and or generate energy, usually in the form of ATP.

But the energy released from ATP can be used for many varied things: anabolic reactions, mechanical work, active transport of molecules.

For ATP to be used for such varied anabolic processes, they must be separate enough from the catabolic processes to alter, change, and evolve to fit all those variety of purposes.

On the other hand the catabolic reactions are also separate and can evolve beyond ATP production to: the digestion of nutrients by breaking down molecules; the protection of the cell by breaking down of non-self molecules; and to excreting out waste, by breaking down and removing waste molecules.

Therefore anabolic processes are free to use ATP in many ways not limited by the catabolic processes that make the ATP. And Catabolic processes are separate enough to alter, change, or evolve too.

Note that the basic metabolic pathways in most organisms are essentially the same. This suggests that the anabolic uses of ATP are more varied

than the catabolic processes that make the ATP.

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Support Doc 3 Catabolic – conserved, Anabolic – varied

Start with the premise that catabolic and anabolic processes are often separate and often evolve separately.

The reason most genomes are so similar is because  catabolic processes of making energy are so similar.

The reason genomes are so different is because anabolic process use that energy for different reasons.

The catabolic processes are similar in most species groups

Two examples are all photoautotrophs, or  all heterotrophs .

PHOTOSYNTHESIS: The photosynthesis process is similar among plants, while what the plants do with the energy is different and varied.

OXIDATION: The process of oxidation of organic compounds is similar among animals, while what the animals do with the energy is different and varied

If catabolic and anabolic are separate, they  can develop separately. That suggests the following

Certain metabolic groups  may have stronger catabolic aspects than others .

Certain species may have stronger catabolic aspects than others.

One sex  may have stronger catabolic aspects than others.

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We may also look at the catabolic / anabolic processes not only as separate but in their intensity. I suggest that some biomes may have higher catabolic / anabolic rates, and some may have lower catabolic / anabolic rates.

Tropical rain forest, with high energy input, may have all its species with high catabolic AND anabolic processes.

Dry cold winter desert with  low energy input, may have all its species with low catabolic AND anabolic processes.

Certain seasons in biomes with noticeable changes in seasons may have higher catabolic / anabolic processes  due to the availability of nutrients, water, sunlight, etc.

Catabolic / anabolic processes should be higher in spring and summer than the cold of winter.

Catabolic / anabolic processes should be higher in certain biomes in the sea due to the availability of nutrients, water, sunlight etc.

Catabolic / anabolic processes should be higher in coral reefs and lower in the abyssal zone at the bottom of the ocean.

Here are two more ideas connected to the anabolic / catabolic split.

Certain seasons in biomes with noticeable changes in seasons may have higher catabolic / anabolic processes  due to the availability of nutrients, water, sunlight, etc.

Catabolic / anabolic processes should be higher in spring and summer than the cold of winter.

Catabolic / anabolic processes should be higher in certain biomes in the sea due to the availability of nutrients, water, sunlight etc.

Catabolic / anabolic processes should be higher in coral reefs and lower in the abyssal zone at the bottom of the ocean.

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Catabolic / Anabolic divisions list – new items.

CATABOLIC –  Hydrolysis

ANABOLIC – Condensation Reactions.

TYPE OF SELECTION PRESSURE  NOW. All the major metabolic pathways seen in prokaryotes probably evolved in first billion years. The catabolic processes seem to be highly conserved such that stabilizing selection predominates. Example glycolysis, the only metabolic pathway common to nearly all modern organisms.

CATABOLIC – Stabilizing Selection

ANABOLIC –  Directional and Diversifying selection.

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Support Doc 4 Pressure to Regulate

Cells can’t break down , catabolic metabolism, and build up, anabolic metabolism at the same time; unless the processes are both highly separate and highly regulated.  If life is both catabolic and anabolic pathways then by their different natures we have to also have high regulation of the two processes.

1 Two such opposite processes demand a lot of regulation.

2 There should be a lot of selection pressure to better regulate the two separate pathways.

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Support Doc 5 Two Text Quotes to Support C/A Evolve Separately

Catabolic and Anabolic pathways must be separate.

Catabolic and Anabolic are regulated by enzymes.

Enzymes have evolved to specialized organelles.

Thus I suggest that catabolic and anabolic have evolved separately and often have separate organelles. (See post of Specific Examples).

Catabolic and anabolic pathways differ.

“Chemical chaos would result if all of a cell’s metabolic pathways were open simultaneously. Imagine, for example, a substance synthesized by one pathway and broken down by another. If the two pathways were to run at the same time, the cell would be spinning its metabolic wheels. actually, the operation of each metabolic pathway is tightly regulated. Pathways are switched on and off by controlling enzyme activity….

Even when the enzymes for a metabolic pathway are individually dissolved, they may be highly concentrated along with their substrates within specialized organelles of the cell…. If the cell had the same number of enzymes for respiration , but they were diluted throughout the entire volume of the cell, respiration would be very inefficient.” Campbell, “Biology” Third Ed. p.106-107.

“”Catabolic and anabolic pathways differ. If a metabolite is converted to another metabolite by an exergonic process, free energy must be supplied to convert the second metabolite back to the first. This energetically “uphill” process requires a different pathway for at least some of the reaction steps.

The existence of independent interconversion routes … is an important property of metabolic pathways because it allows independent control of the two processes. If metabolite 2 is required by the cell, it is necessary to ‘turn off’ the pathway from 2 to 1 while ‘turning on’ the pathway from 1 to 2. Such independent control would be impossible without different pathways.” Voet, Voet, Pratt. “Fundamentals of Biochemistry”. Updated ed. p. 358.

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Support Doc 6 Catabolic – Similar, Anabolic – Great Variation

Catabolic processes to get ATP, are reasonably similar:

” A bewildering array of chemical reactions occur in any living cell.  Yet the principles that govern metabolism are the same in all organisms, a result of their common evolutionary origin and the constraints of the laws of the thermodynamics. In fact, many of the specific reactions of metabolism are common to all organisms, with variations due primarily to differences in the source of the free energy that supports them.” Voet, Voet,  Pratt, Fundamentals of Biochemistry Upgrade Ed. p. 354.

But anabolic uses of that ATP range from transport work, mechanical work, to chemical work. That suggests that the anabolic uses have evolved to a great variety of processes.

It seems that we have separate catabolic and anabolic processes. And while catabolic processes to get ATP are somewhat conserved and similar, the anabolic processes that use that ATP seem more variable

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Support Doc 7 Lysosomes

Here is an example of how catabolic pathways have evolved to

1. digestion processes

2. waste out processes.

3. protection processes

And how catabolic pathways have evolved separately from the anabolic processes.

Start with lysosomes.

Lysosomes are organelles in eukaryotic cells that contain catabolic enzymes which breakdown macromolecules for recycling. They break down waste into simple compounds that are often returned to the cytoplasm as new material . The lysosomes have a membrane that separates it from the rest of the cell and protects the rest of the cell from the lysosomes acidic digestive acids .

Lysosomes seem to have evolved as a catabolic pathway.

In some cases these lysosomes connect with food vacuoles coming into the cell (endocytosis) and waste going out of the cell (exocytosis). Each cell seems to have its own food in / waste out processes.

Though found in all eukaryotic cells, lysosomes are most numerous in disease fighting cells, examples white blood cells. Thus the processes of breaking down molecules has evolved to protecting the cell, or organism, by breaking down non-self threats.

Now put all this together. We see in every eukaryotic cell the way catabolic pathways have expanded from not just breaking down macro molecules, but

1. digestion processes

2. waste out processes.

3. protection processes

I suggest that basic catabolic bio pathways have evolved to other processes – specifically digestion, waste out, and protection processes. And that these have evolved, in many ways, separately from anabolic processes.

Support Doc 8 Digestion Part 2

Digestion.

Digestion is the best example of how catabolic pathways have  evolved and evolved separately from anabolic processes:

Note that almost all animals have a digestive tube that is separate. Digestion involves these 5 steps, 4 of which have evolved from catabolic processes:

Ingestion (catabolic), mechanical breakdown (catabolic), chemical breakdown (catabolic), absorption (anabolic), elimination (catabolic).

In almost all animals digestion takes place in a chamber within the body where food is broken down by enzymes outside the cell. Digestion has evolved to be separate from the anabolic synthesis pathways.

The process of evolution is one that builds on what went before. That means that evolution is based on the first metabolism or the first catabolic and anabolic  processes. There is nothing else to build on. And because they are such opposite bio pathways, there is separation between the two as they each evolve. There is also separate regulation of each.

Digestion was built on catabolic processes and it expanded and refined how biochemical pathways could breakdown molecules.

Once you see this step, from catabolic, to digestion, then it is easy to see how catabolic processes could evolve to not only digestion; but defense, the break down of non-self molecules; and waste out, the last step in animal digestion.

Clearly this is not  molecular biology like most are used to. It is looking at the processes on a different higher level. For me there is real insight here that shows two direct and distinct pathways that evolved out of basic metabolism processes.

Support Doc 9  Specifics from the net

The following excerpted from this website

http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Metabolism_-_Metabolic_pathways/i…

Why is it so easy to imagine mythical fire breathing dragons, and

flying horses, but impossible to see that

catabolic and anabolic processes have evolved, and evolved

separately?  Here are some specifics:

Metabolism – Catabolism

Catabolic pathways that breakdown complex molecules into simple

compounds:

Cellular respiration, metabolic pathways that create energy (ATP and

NADPH) from fuel molecules. These pathways are also involved in the

digestion of food.

Carbohydrate catabolism

Glycogenolysis, the conversion of glycogen into glucose.

Glycolysis, the conversion of glucose into pyruvate and ATP, does not

require oxygen.

Embden-Meyerhof pathway, the common glycolysis pathway.

Entner-Doudoroff Pathway, an alternative glycolysis pathway in few

bacteria.

Pentose phosphate pathway (hexose monophosphate shunt), generation of

NADPH from glucose.

Protein catabolism, the hydrolysis of proteins into amino acids.

Aerobic respiration

Electron transfer chain

Oxidative phosphorylation

Anaerobic respiration,

Cori cycle

Lactic acid fermentation

Fermentation

Ethanol fermentation

_________________________

Metabolism – Anabolism

Anabolic pathways that create building blocks and compounds from

simple precursors:

Glycogenesis

Gluconeogenesis

Porphyrin synthesis pathway

HMG-CoA reductase pathway, leading to cholesterol and isoprenoids.

Secondary metabolism, metabolic pathways that are not essential for

growth, development or reproduction, but that usually have ecological

function.

Photosynthesis

Light-dependent reaction (light reaction)

Light-independent reaction (dark reaction)

Calvin cycle

Carbon fixation

Support Doc 10  Prove it Wrong

Let’s look at this idea the other way around,

There is a way to prove my hypothesis  about catabolic and anabolic, evolving, and evolving separately – wrong.

If the following are right then my idea is wrong.

1. Though catabolic and anabolic processes have separate regulation, they somehow can never evolve separately. They must always evolve at the same time.

2. Anabolism uses ATP. But if anabolism can never evolve, and/or evolve separately; then the first use for ATP is the first and only way any living thing can use ATP. There can never be more than one way to use ATP. If there was then it would have to have evolved to different uses.

3. Life evolves but not from metabolism.  Somehow there are examples of natural selection that does not involve metabolism, does not involve catabolism and anabolism.

Those who suggest my idea is wrong, then must defend the idea that catabolic and anabolic processes cannot evolve. Nor can they evolve separately.

And there is evolution outside of metabolism.

Here’s more:

1. If  catabolic and anabolic processes did not evolve separately then both are the same as they started. And the mix of catabolic and anabolic processes should be exactly the same – if one is 50% of the biological processes, the other is 50%. If one is 40% the other is 60%. And this never changes, no matter the species, no matter the era, no matter the environment.

But this is obviously not true.

2. If a positive mutation happened on the anabolic side, does that mean there is an immediate change in the catabolic side to exactly match? How could the 2nd side mutate instantly to keep the anabolic/catabolic processes working exactly the same?

But if they cannot evolve separately, then that would have to be true.

This is again obviously not true.

Thoughts?

Support Doc 11 Has to be one or the other

Has to be one or the other:

There is a mutation on either the  CATABOLIC or ANABOLIC side.

There are two possible scenarios that I can see:

1. The mutation on one side causes selection pressure on the other to  match.

There is selection pressure  from a mutation on one side to the other.

OR

2. The mutation on one side does NOT cause selection pressure on the other

to match.

There is no selection pressure from a mutation on one side to the other.

That means that the mutation will only affect the one side, and that  that side

can evolve separately from the other.

We have two possibilities:

EITHER  a mutation on one side causes selection pressure on the other,

OR  It does not and each side can evolve separately.

My contention is that in life both happen. And this suggests two ideas

to explore:

how a mutation on one side will put selection pressure on the other.

how a mutation on one side will allow it to evolve separately from the other.

Support Doc 12 Sum Up

My hypothesis is that catabolic and anabolic processes often evolve separately.

Here is another post on it. Once we see that each side has often evolved separately we can see that each aspect of life has a different mix of catabolic and anabolic processes. That means that everything from single cell to a large biome, will have a different mix with some cells, organelles, organisms, species, and biomes more catabolic than others. That can offer some real insight into all aspects of life.

Notes to consider:

1. Catabolic and anabolic often have separate regulation. That gives quicker, more flexible, and overall better regulation than if a single system ruled both.

2. Catabolism has evolved in many ways. Note that there are different catabolic systems to break down each of these: fats, proteins, sugars, starches.

3. Catabolism has evolved such that all fuel is not used immediately.   We can store fat till it’s needed. Catabolism kicks in when its needed, not when it is a waste of the cell’s energy.

4. Catabolism has evolved to produce powerful digestive enzymes. These need to be separate to protect the rest of the cell.  I suggest that catabolism has also evolved to attacking non-self with similar digestive enzymes, and it has evolved to processes of excreting waste out. Therefore look to digestion, protection, and waste out processes for main areas of the evolution of catabolism processes.

5.  Natural selection seems to favor little change when something works well. But when the catabolic side improves, there should be pressure on the other anabolic side to change to match. And vice versa. This suggests a process of change that is not from mutation, but from within the organism.

6. Catabolic and anabolic processes are so opposite that it seems difficult to see how they would both start up. The best guess is that these two different processes are the reflection of some duality in the environment. My suggestion is either the day – night cycle, and / or a wet-dry cycle.

7.  Each aspect of life on every level should have a different mix of catabolic and anabolic processes. If they did not then all living things would have the same constant proportion of catabolic / anabolic that never changes or evolves. That is not true.

8. We can get insight into all aspects of life by comparing those aspects that are highly catabolic – more catabolic than anabolic, as compared with those aspects of life that are highly anabolic.

Support Doc 13 Shelled Creatures

The Cambrian was an era known for the appearance of many creatures with shells . Most think these were for self defense. If true, some creatures were predators attacking, and others were prey being attacked. And the prey slowly developed hard shells as protection.

This ‘arms race’ can be considered as a race of catabolic processes versus anabolic processes.

Catabolic processes

of the attacking creatures to break down the shelled creatures

versus

Anabolic processes

of the creatures being attacked, building up tougher shells for protection.

It suggests this is another loose division of catabolic and anabolic processes, and it suggests that this division can set up arms races between species.

The largest one probably being

CATABOLIC – heterotrophs  versus  ANABOLIC – autotrophs.

Therefore catabolic and anabolic processes may be an important force of evolution.

Support Doc 14 Classifications

New Type of Classification System For Life

The Catabolic Anabolic division, may be an important way to classify life. By using a loose definition of catabolic – break down, and anabolic – build up, we can find some important dichotomies that give us some insight into how life works.

This should also introduce readers into a new way of looking at life, as an anabolic, catabolic split.

Previous posts have shown that catabolic and anabolic pathways have evolved separately.That suggests that everything is either more catabolic or more anabolic.

That suggests that every cell, organism, species, or even biome, may have more anabolic ‘build up’ than catabolic ‘breakdown’ biochemistry*.  The cell, organism, species, or biome has evolved to better adapt to its environment by stressing either catabolic or anabolic processes. Therefore we can compare groups and classify them according to their preponderance of catabolic or anabolic processes.

Here are some examples . C =  more catabolic like, A -= more anabolic like.

C. Male,  A. Female

C. Heterotroph A. Autotroph

C. Attacks Non-self A. Supports Self.

(*In the case of biomes, there may be more of both processes than other biomes.)

Support Doc 15 New Paradigm

Trying to explain all biology through the molecular level only is like trying to explain a bad mother in law’s behavior through the actions of her electrons.

Due to the groundbreaking discoveries of Watson Crick, biology has concentrated on molecular biology and replication. I suggest that it is time for a new paradigm,  not replication, but metabolism, the other side of the coin.  Not replication on the molecular level, but metabolism on larger overall levels – specially the impact of the opposite forces of catabolic and anabolic as they have evolved into other processes.

These posts have given good evidence that catabolic and anabolic are separate processes, that they are regulated separately, and that they have evolved separately to other aspects of life, yet no one seems willing to address that  or its obvious ramifications and insights.

Why? This seems like a big development. Comment?

Support Doc 16 Two for One or Twice as Fast Selection

Two for one or twice as fast selection.

Looking at life as a catabolic / anabolic split may help  explain punctuated equilibrium, symbiosis, and why there is natural selection if most mutations are negative.

The opposite but complimentary processes of catabolic and anabolic may be a motor that pushes natural selection more quickly than we had thought. Most positive changes in one side will promote a positive change in the other to catch up. Example. Human brain size grew. That was a selective advantage. But to do that the hominids needed more energy to supply the brains needs. Brain growth demanded improvements of energy. OR it could have been the other way around, and improvements on the catabolic side may have allowed the anabolic side to build larger brains.  Either way a change on one side demanded a catch up improvement on the other.

This speedier natural selection process would help explain punctuated equilibrium and why species seldom change, but when they do they seem to change in a major way.

This speedier natural selection process would also help explain the symbiosis idea of Lynn Margulis. Except in this case it is not the symbiosis of two different species, but the symbiotic changes due to the opposite but complimentary processes of catabolic and anabolic.

Selection on either catabolic or anabolic side puts pressure on the other side for change to match. If not then we have an impossible situation where every mutation would have an instant matching mutation on its counterpart. Ex. a positive mutation on catabolic processes, would have to have an exact instant positive mutation on the connected anabolic process, and that seems foolish at best. Example note fat storage. That clearly shows that the catabolic and anabolic  processes do not work exactly in tandem at the same time. How could fat reserves be stored if it did? Therefore it seems highly plausible that the two opposite but complimentary processes, have evolved separately, and are regulated separately for the flexible advantages that gives.

Support Doc 18 Two More Points

Two more points to consider:

1. Response to the argument that catabolic and anabolic did NOT evolve separately.

IF catabolic and anabolic did not evolve separately, that means they evolved together. That means that  every positive mutation on the catabolic side instantly produced a matching positive mutation on the anabolic side. That means that for every mutation there were really 2 mutations – one on the catabolic side, and one on the anabolic side. We should see mutations in pairs. This is not the case. Clearly mutations do not come in pairs. Clearly a mutation on one side does not instantly lead to a matching mutation on the other. This suggests to me that catabolic and anabolic processes evolved separately – a key argument to my hypothesis.

2. Response to the argument that catabolic and anabolic processes blended and did not evolve separately.

IF catabolic and anabolic processes  blended through time, then they would not be separate today. Clearly there are separate catabolic and anabolic processes today. That means they have stayed separate over billions of years; and that separation of these anabolic and catabolic processes has been selected for.

Support Doc 19 More on Sleep

Lately I thought of a way to test my idea of why we sleep (see below).

I figured that if sleep was part of the metabolism cycle, and mainly

concerned with processing that days food intake, then for those times

when you fasted, there should be less sleep.

We know when we eat a big meal we feel sleepy – that suggests sleep
helps process a heavy meal. But what about the other way? If we fast
do we need less sleep?

Doing a quick google of fasting and sleep, I found that that is
exactly true. Those that fast need less sleep. This helps give support
to my ideas on why we sleep. Hopefully it’ll open the door to more
research in this area.

Here is more information that supports the idea as sleep as part of the digestion cycle.

Note that after gorging themselves on a kill, lions will often sleep almost continuously for 2 or 3 days.

Support Doc 20 Considered Foolish

Quote Stuart Kauffman:

“Organisms are ad-hoc solutions to design problems. The standard view is that there are no deep theories of the deep meaning of ad-hoc contraptions. You take the things apart and find out how they work. Most biologists adhere to that view. Notions of underlying deep principles are not an anathema to them, they’re just considered foolish.”

That should now change. There are underlying deep principles. Metabolism is one of two kinds, catabolic – break down, or anabolic build up. My many posts have shown clearly that catabolic and anabolic processes must often be separate, have evolved, and have evolved separately.  To say otherwise is to go beyond reason to blind stubbornness. The people here are smart enough to understand it. Time you put aside unreasonable vague worries and look hard and see the obvious. To do otherwise , I consider foolish.

———————-

Here’s another aspect of this hypothesis.

Autoimmune diseases. My suggestion is that this is a catabolic problem. These seem that the bodies defense system is attacking not only invading non self, or digestion food, but is attacking its own self. To resolve this, look to resolving the problem with the catabolic processes that are attacking self.

———————————————————–

The following is new to file

SUPPORT Doc 21

CONSTRUCTIVE =  evolved anabolic processes

DECONSTRUCTIVE = evolved catabolic processes.

The Hypothesis:  Metabolism is catabolic and anabolic chemistry.

This hypothesis suggests that as the basic chemistries remained very

little changed over time,  they

1. evolved to new processes (perhaps through duplication of genes)

and

2. evolved separately in many cases, and

3. looking at life as often two main threads of these evolved

processes, gives new insights into life.

Catabolic chemistry, while retaining its basic chemical processes,

also evolved to some DECONSTRUCTIVE processes mostly concerned with

breaking down NON-SELF.  Mostly in DIGESTION, PROTECTION and WASTE

OUT.  See the long list of examples through these many related posts.

Anabolic chemistry, while retaining its basic chemical processes, also

evolved to some CONSTRUCTIVE processes mostly concerned with building

up SELF.

See the long list of examples through these many related posts.

SUPPORT Doc 22

Gene induction = A

Gene repression = C

growth = A

sporation = C

Cope’s Rule = A dominance

Viruses = C dominance

SUPPORT Doc 23

LIFE DEFINITION:

Chemical system that uses energy to adjust to the environment through both construcitve (build up) and deconstructive (break down) processes.

Birth =  constructive -Anabolic

Death =deconstructive – Catabolic

Happiness is the emotion in the middle.  Too hot = anger, too cold = fear, just right = happiness. Then augment or amplify it through hormones.

SOME viruses would be life. Specifically those that  both break down – the host, and build up copies.

SUPPORT Doc 23

Constructive – builds up SELF

Deconstructive – breaks down NON SELF

Alimentary canal is:

Deconstructive break down phase

Anabolic build up from nutrients phase

Deconstructive waste out phase.

Musea Art Contest 7/19/10

July 20, 2010

The answer to, and winner (if any) for, our last contest question of:

This sci-fi short story is set in 2055. It’s the most republished science fiction story of all time. Name it and its author. Here’s a clue, “Butterfly”.

IS
“A Sound of Thunder”, by Ray Bradbury. The story is about time travel with this warning – don’t tamper with the past, a little change then can alter history in a big way now. And butterfly clue? One hunter in the time travel safari goes off the path and crushes a butterfly under his boot. He was warned. Complications follow!

I had no correct eligible answers. Seems the answer was underfoot too.

I don’t dumb DOWN, so wise UP.
Now on to a new Q.: Win a copy of my NEW cd CALLED ‘30′! – (first anti-band CD) or my NEWER cd CALLED ‘NEXT”(‘06) or my NEWEST cd CALLED ‘THIRDS” (May ‘07) or my MORE NEWEST cd Called “FOUR-TH” ‘08 or my Just RELEASED MOST NEWEST cd CALLED ‘5-TH’(Nov.’09)( one of the 5 CD set). Hunkasaurus.com (has them all plus videos and more) if you are the first to e-mail me at THIS ADDRESS: tom-hendricks @ att.net(remove blanks of course) with the correct answer to this art question*

Speaking of time travel, we are back in October 1881. Within 48 hours two historical events happen. On one side of the world one of the world’s greatest artists is born. On the other side of the world the world’s greatest shoot out occurs. Name the dates and events. And have a safe trip back to the present day!

Good Luck!
Readers, IF you like these puzzles and would like to resend them to friends, post them on any newsgroup, or any website, please do so. The more the merrier! For tons of past quizzes go to, the musea website at musea.us or the Musea blog at musea.wordpress.comAnd don’t forget the music/videos at hunkasaurus.comhttp://www.Myspace.com/Musead(New Friends welcome) http://www.youtube.com/TomHendricksMusea(all my videos)
Tom Hendricks (editor of the 17 year old zine Musea)

Now Out, Online Release, “Five from the Beatles”

July 17, 2010

Here’s this week’s release of a new online EP from Hunkasaurus and His Pet Dog Guitar.

These are all Beatle songs by either John, Paul or George. They are all done in the Post- Bands -back-to-basics  style.

Hope you enjoy them.

1. ANYTIME AT ALL

2. GOODBYE

3. THAT MEANS A LOT

4. I WILL

5. I NEED YOU


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